Research and Publications

RAJAGIRI JOURNAL OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Volume 7                       Number 1                   June 2015

Debating Community, Print and Dalit in Kerala, India 1
Ranjit Thankappan

Terminally Ill Patients andSocial Work Interventions
Jiji.T.S.andRakesh T.P.

Non-Governmental Organisations(NGOs): Issues of Terminology and Definitions
Albert Kuruvila

Decentralised Governance and Political Empowerment of Women: Gram Panchayats in Koraput District of Odisha, India
Tejeswar Karkora

Development Programme Development Alternatives: Santhigram’s Experience
P.M. Dev

BOOK REVIEW
NGO and Social Development
Anna Lungbila P


Debating Community, Print andDalit in Kerala, India
Ranjit Thankappan

Abstract
The emergence of print within Dalit publics, which acts as the modern cultural site of individuated and communitarian political articulations, rekindles the cultural tensions in the community‘s encounter with modernity and also within the evolution of the Dalit political subject. The differing signifying practices of the modern articulations of the Dalits are represented in the discursive print space of Malayalam Dalit magazines.This paper looks into the Dalit debates in the Malayalam speaking regions of Kerala, by locating it at the narrative praxis of print culture as represented in some of the literary spaces and in the little journalistic space of Dalit magazines. The attempt is to understand the latent socio-cultural process which shapes the community formation among Dalits in the sub-national space of a post-colonial region known as Kerala in India. The assumption is that such an inquiry into Dalit discourses of the region would reflect upon the nuances of socio-cultural transformation taking place in the society, the locus point being the structural power relationscentred and based primarily on the institution of castes.


Terminally Ill Patients andSocial Work Interventions
Jiji.T.S.1 Rakesh T.P.

Abstract
Human emotions have different meanings and impact on different people. The most common emotion presented by human beings on the loss of a loved one is called grief. The process of grieving creates many chemical and emotional changes or physical and psychological changes in the human body and mind. The various stages of grief´ are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance, or DABDA (D-Denial, A-anger, B-bargaining, D-depression and A- acceptance).The mental health professionals working with such victims mainly focuses on helping or enabling the clients to get out of that negative emotion in a non-destructive way. Though grieving is painful it is important that those who have suffered a loss be allowed to express their grief. It is also important that they be supported throughout the process. The bereavement support for the family who is experiencing the loss of a family member or close loved ones needs to be initiated much before that person succumbs to inevitable death. The professionals dealing with such individuals are usually qualified and trained to lessen the severity of possible emotional setbacks and other related issues prevailing in the lives of those who are more vulnerable to feel alienated owing to the absence of the loved one whose life was endangered.


Non-Governmental Organisations(NGOs): Issues of Terminology and Definitions
Albert Kuruvila1

There is a phenomenal growth over the last two decades in the numbers and scope of Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) across the world. Although there is great recognition on therole of NGOs in society, there is no agreement on what the term NGO entails and how NGOs can be defined and understood. A number of issues are associated with this disagreement such as terminological issues and different approaches to definitions. The terminological issues refer to the wide range of terms used to identify this set of organisations such as an non-profit, not for profit,civil society, third sector organisations and so on. The various definitional approaches include legal,functional, economical and structural definitions. This conceptual paper argues that an analysis of the debates on sectoral differences, terminological issues and definitional aspects surrounding theconcept of NGO can provide an understanding of the concept. This paper concludes that NGOs are institutional entities, different from government and commercial organisations, based on six essential attributes: formal nature, non-governmental, non-profit, self-governing, voluntarism and accountability


Decentralised Governance and Political Empowerment of Women: Gram Panchayats in Koraput District of Odisha, India
Tejeswar Karkora

Abstract Women‘s participation in public life is often constrained due to various socio-economic conditions. The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of India provides 33 per cent reservation for women to give them wider representation in the local bodies. In spite of such and other provisions, empowerment of women is not satisfactory because of certain factors like political failure, lack of education and awareness among women. Against this background, a study was conducted in a backward and tribal district of Odisha, which examined the political processes. The study attempted to find out how women perceive their political empowerment as people‘s representatives. It also examined the perception of elected representatives on political empowerment. The findings of the study are expected to give a better understanding of the relationship between socio-economic backwardness of the region and women‘s participation and empowerment. In turn, this will help in meeting the challenges of women‘s empowerment as envisioned in the 73rd amendment. This empirical study found that the participation of women is adversely influenced by the socio economic structure of the region. The socio-economic backwardness of the region affected the capabilities of women in their participation as people‘s representatives. The performance of the women members appears to be more adversely affected than the male members. Thus, capabilities in the public domain are not only gendered, but also socio-economically structured.


Development Alternatives:Santhigram’s Experience
P.M. Dev

In India the voluntary sector has been steadily growing in importance. Not only in number and size of the organizations but also in the substance of positive changes mediated by them, the voluntary development sector has elicited both the attention and admiration of the country. The sector is noted for a number of admirable traits. To mention one factor, there is a large space of creative freedom, space for experimentation and innovation. While the government and business sectors are weighed down by concerns of immediate results and profits, respectively, the voluntary sector is, relatively at least, free from these and can devote its energies in the search for various means and ways of achieving greater common good. For another, the voluntary sector has proved that its service delivery can be most cost-effective. This is made possible because of its nature of voluntarism. No wonder, there is an awakening the world over, to adopt voluntary ethos into governance systems. Voluntary organizations have, happily, come to stay in India. Santhigram, a voluntary development organization founded in 1987 in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala, India, celebrated its silver jubilee in 2012. The bygone quarter of a century plus has been marked by the organization‘s mission and passion for searching, experimenting and struggling to explore and propagate innovative ways of promoting holistic/sustainable styles of living. Much water has flowed down the river of time, leaving in its trail a slew of development impacts. The following is an attempt at reviewing the path trodden by Santhigram through more than a quarter of a century, the processes followed and their outcomes, with a view to reap important learnings for giving shape to further future intervention strategies.


RAJAGIRI JOURNAL OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Volume 7 Number 2 December 2015 CONTENTS

1. Indian Social Work Education: A Generalist Core Competence Approach Jasmine Sarah Alexander

2. Crop Diversification and Food Security in Kerala N. Karunakaran

3. Inclusive Education in India and Russia: A Comparative Analysis of Legal Frameworks Oleg V. Pavenkov, Vladimir G. Pavenkov, Mariia V. Rubtcova and Hemalatha Narayanamurthy

4. The Psychosocial Context of Youth Tobacco Use: Neglected or Forgotten? Nycil Romis Thomas and Nauroz C. A.

5. Regulatory Framework in Healthcare Delivery: A Study of the Kerala Medical Travel Industry Sindhu Joseph and Robinet Jacob From the Field Welfare Services Ernakulam, Ponnurunni, Kerala Paul Cherupilly and Arun George Book Review NGOs and Participatory Development in India Kiran Thampy


Indian Social Work Education: A Generalist Core Competence Approach
Jasmine Sarah  Alexander1

Abstract This article is a critique of the current social work training methodology in India,which is specialisation-intensive and non-reflective of the training needs of practitioners. The paper draws attention to the growth of Social Work in the countryin terms of the increasing numbers of schools of social work and Non-Governmental Organisations. These numbers have led to the demand for superior performance and accountability from social workers, which in turn is dependent on the quality of training offered to them. The paper employs an elaborate literature review, adopting a historical and international perspective, to expose the grey areas of the present system of social work education and training in India and bring out the relevance of the Generalist Core Competence approach in the country. It is argued that the Generalist Core Competence approach is capable of augmenting practice and assisting the social work profession to overcome its challenges.


Crop Diversification and Food Security in Kerala
N. Karunakaran

The recent developments in agriculture in Kerala show crop diversification. The process of diversification is evident in different forms such as the cultivated area under food grain crops to non-food grain crops and one non-food grain crop to another non-food grain crop. During the early 1960s, the order of the first five preferred crops were rice, coconut, tapioca, rubber and pepper, in descending order of proportion to the total cropped area. But today the preferred crops are coconut, rubber, rice, pepper and arecanut. Rubber came in the second position. Coconut, rubber and pepper together constituted a major portion of the total cropped area. The main crops losing area were rice and tapioca. The crop diversification indices for all Kerala and districts revealed less diversification in the pre-1991 period compared to recent years. This has created an imbalance in the cropping system with serious economic and environmental consequences. Reduction in rice production, decline in the availability of livestock and its products, decline in food availability, and changes in the employment pattern in rural areas are some of the important economic consequences of crop diversification. Food security, particularly in the case of rice, is the vital issue for Kerala at present. This study shows that there will be an increasing demand for rice in Kerala in the coming years. This will enlarge the supply demand gap of rice in Kerala in future.


Inclusive Education in India and Russia: A Comparative Analysis of Legal Frameworks
Oleg V. Pavenkov, Vladimir G. Pavenkov, Mariia V. Rubtcova and HemalathaNarayanamurthy

This article addresses the question of the comparative analysis of legal frameworks in the inclusive education system of India and Russia. The objective is to consider the issue of inclusive education. Despite the differences in mentality, special conditions and features, India and Russia have the same problem in this sphere. The main problem of the system of inclusive education in India and Russia is the lack of specially trained teachers and detailed developed legal frameworks. India and Russia have no all-Indian and all-Russian law about inclusive education. There were no significant differences of legal frameworks of inclusive education in India and Russia. There are significant differences in special conditions of transition to inclusive education in India and Russia. The lack of necessary conditions in schools and the lack of government policies and finances are the main barriers to inclusive education.


The Psychosocial Context of Youth Tobacco Use: Neglected or Forgotten?
Nycil Romis Thomas and Nauroz C. A.

Abstract Tobacco is a global epidemic killing six million people a year and this, according to theWorld Health Organisation (WHO, 2015), is expected to rise to eight million by 2030. It is not just this increasing death toll due to tobacco use that is crucial in calling it a public health priority. Tobacco is also the single most preventable cause of death among the five greatest risk factors for mortality including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. According to WHO, tobacco use is attributed as the cause of more than 70 per cent of deaths from lung, trachea and bronchus cancers (WHO,2015). This indicates that a crucial proportion of our productive population die prematurely because of tobacco use which is totally preventable. Although several factors are responsible for tobacco use among youth, the psychosocial context of young people is primary in the initiation and sustenance of smoking, but is seldomtargeted in preventive interventions. This article examines the psychosocial context of tobacco use by the younger generation in relation to smoking and how young tobacco users perceive the advertisements intended to curb and prevent tobacco use.


Regulatory Framework in Healthcare Delivery: A Study of the Kerala Medical Travel Industry
Sindhu Joseph and Robinet Jacob

Kerala has become a major international destination for healthcare. People from the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) countries, Middle-East countries and the developed world look up to Kerala in their search of cheaper quality healthcare. There are many multi-speciality hospitals and medicities with accreditations and trained and experienced doctors. It can be observed that, in the lastfew years, billions of rupees have been invested in the healthcare sector of Kerala.Hospitals position themselves as centres of international healthcare. However, there is a regulatory vacuum in healthcare delivery and it has direct repercussions when it comes to international healthcare delivery. The absence of a regulatory framework leads to many unethical practices. This will force international patients to switch to other international competitors. This article describes the various ethical and legal concerns of Kerala medical travel from the perspectives of hospitals and intermediaries. This article evaluates the regulatory environment of Kerala and puts forward suggestions to address the issues by the industry players including publicsector undertakings