UGC Minor research Reports

principal investigators :

 

  • Fr. Saju M.D 
  • Kiran Thampi
  • Nycil Romis Thomas
  • Dr. Sr. Sunirose I.P
  • Sunita K S

Name and address of the principal investigator:

 

Fr. Saju M D

Asst professor

Dept of Social Work, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104

Kerala, India

 

Name and address of the institution:

 

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences, (Affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam)

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104

Kerala, India

Executive summery

 

Impact of Family Social Work Intervention on the Holistic Development of Children

 

Family is the most important resource for the holistic development of the children especially a country like India where the social security measures are inadequate due to poor budgetary allocation. Social workers due to their theoretical foundations, practice skills and value based approach are experts in the area of family interventions. Social work interventions focusing on partnership between family and school, works better for the development of the children because the children spend substantial amount of their time in these institutions, they acquire foundations of intellectual, physical, social, emotional and ethical values from these institutions. School and family are complementary and school can act as a buffer system for all the inadequacies of the families, provided the school system is sensitive enough to identify the children with disturbances within the school setting and make use of evidence based culturally appropriate, cost effective methods of interventions without any delay.

 

The Social Work intervention package was developed based on the ‘Theory of Change’ model. Supervision was used as an effective tool to ensure quality of the intervention.

 

Theoretical Foundation of the study

 

This research assumes that currently diagnosed children with severe disorders were moderate and current moderate were mild in the past. Timely interventions would have helped them to arrest the deterioration, reduce the negative outcomes and realize their full potentials. Psycho social, psycho dynamic and psych analytic paradigm together with attachment theory helped to understand the complexities of the mind. Various models and approaches of social case work laid the theoretical foundations of the research.

 

Statement of the problem

 

Every child is born with potential to succeed and achieve throughout the years of schooling, fulfilling the development tasks and managing hazards of development, provided the school creates adequate opportunities from day one of the schooling. Middle class and lower middle class families fulfill their aspirations through the success of their children. Therefore failure to equip the children to achieve will have negative outcomes for their entire family, society, country and Nation as a whole. A feasible intervention model was designed in the present study to test it for its efficacy and standardize the process and procedures so that it can be extrapolated to similar settings to identify the children with difficulties and plan, implement and evaluate the interventions.

 

Objectives of the study

 

Research looked into family risk factors and protective factors, assessed the effectiveness of training teachers for assessment, design social work methods based service delivery system utilizing the student trainees and to develop a supervisory model on the basis of reflective practitioner paradigm.

 

Hypotheses

Many hypotheses were tested such as effectiveness of teachers’ training in identifying children with disorders, impact of family risk factors on the child related outcomes, effectiveness of supervision and effectiveness of social work interventions to reduce behavioural and emotional disturbances in children as well as improving their cognitive functioning and academic performance.

 

Research Design

The study was a quasi experimental with pre and post assessment. There was a comparison group to identify major risk factors and protective factors for outcomes in children.

The intervention Group was selected by the teachers using the inclusion criteria; children with low academic performance, having behavioral and emotional disturbances, children who disturb the normal class room functioning and fail to abide by the school norms, children under the influence of alcohol and drugs, children addicted to pornographic materials, children with inappropriate sexual behaviours and children frequently take leave.

 

Comparison Group

The comparison group of respondents was selected based on their academic performance. The children who scored above 80% (Distinction) from each of the divisions, from first standard to tenth, were selected to be part of the comparison group. Academic performance was taken as important variable assuming that it is an important indicator of good mental health.

Universe

The Universe of the study was all the children enrolled in the registers of St. Theresa’s High School, Manappuram, Alappuzha during the year 2012- 2013. St. Theresa’s High School, is an aided school with 1169 children of which 629 were girls and 540 were boys.

Unit of the study: The unit of study was every child studying in St. Theresa’s High School, Manappuram, Alappuzha District, Kerala.

 

Sampling

Sampling was done in two phases. The Intervention group consisted of 128 children selected by the teachers based on assessment skills acquired through teachers’ training program. There was a comparison group which consisted of 139 children selected based on better academic performance.

 

Tools of data Collection

Tools of data collection included Socio Demographical profile of children, Psychotherapy file developed by Anthony Ryle (2002), major components were Traps, Dilemmas to self and others and Snags), Mayer Gross format of assessment (Gross. et al,.1969) and Child Behavioural checklist (T. Achenbac., 2001).

Analysis of data

 

  1. Baseline data collection

     

    Base line data was collected from both the intervention group and comparison group in the beginning of the study, in the month of July 2012. Intervention
  2. Development and implementation through mechanism of supervision and coordination, Post Intervention assessment

Statistical Design

The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software.

 

Ethical considerations;

Informed consent of the parents of the respondents was obtained before the study and confidentiality was assured.

Major Findings

 

The number of girls is slightly higher in the school. There were 66 male and 62 female children participated in the intervention. Family history of mental illness, history of suicide in the family, history of epilepsy were significantly more in intervention group compared to comparison group.

 

Both parents of children from the comparison group had stable jobs. Inadequate role functioning was significantly more intense in the intervention group. In the intervention group the risk factors were environment specific and were driven by social factors. Alcohol consumption in fathers was significantly high in intervention group. The mothers from intervention group had higher level of stress during pregnancy; favorable history of breast feeding was seen in the comparison group.

 

Childhood neurotic complaints and childhood infections were more in intervention group. The comparison group had significantly better attachment with immediate care giver and had healthy communication between family members. The families of children of intervention group had significantly high expressed emotions. Children from the comparison group had higher quality of interpersonal interactions and significantly higher level of social skills. Children from the intervention group had significantly higher level of behavioural symptoms. The intervention group had significantly higher levels of cognitive traps, snags and dilemma related to self and others.

 

Conclusion

 

Evidence based social work interventions are possible by the social work trainees using their mandatory field work hours with the help of continuous supervision. Systematic training and continuous support helps the teachers to become reliable resource to assess and manage. It is high time to develop customized cost effective evidence based models of intervention that are theoretically sound, culturally adapted, socially acceptable and economically viable, for promotion, primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in children with difficulties.

 

Situational Analysis of Sex Workers in Kerala with special reference to Ernakulam District

 

Name and address of the principal investigator:

 

Sunita K S

Asst professor Dept of Social Work,

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104 Kerala, India

 

Name and address of the institution:

 

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

(Affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam)

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104

Kerala, India

 

 

Objectives of the project:

 

  1. To study the profile of sex workers in Ernakulam district of Kerala.
  2. To understand psycho social problems among sex workers.
  3. The process of coming to terms-to study the reconciliation process of sex workers with the outer world.
  4. To understand the process which shapes the self-image of sex workers and as well as the image they have of the 'others' in the context of their everyday life.
  5. To study the image that sex workers have for their future life and for the life of their children.

Summary of findings

 

The present study aims at understanding the life experiences of sex workers in their everyday life. In addition, the present study aims to understand the actual "lived in" experiences of these sex workers. These experiences will help to understand the process of reconciliation and adjustment which these sex workers have made with their life and living conditions in order to survive in this profession. There was also be an attempt to understand the image and views the sex workers have about themselves and of the others in the society. Societal perception and its impact on the daily life of the sex workers will also be an area of interest. Lastly the future aspiration of these sex workers about themselves and about their children will be included keeping in mind the socio-cultural milieu in which they are existing.

 

The researcher has tried to find out socio demographic profile of the respondents. The purpose of research was to find out the respondents age, religion, education, family system, source of income, type of work etc. From the available data the researcher concluded that the respondents enter the profession from age 18 and below but for the present study majority of the respondents belong to the age category of 31 to 40 years (53.3%). Out of 60 respondents 50% of respondents are married having children and living with their family members, majority 63.3% of the respondents have primary level education. The monthly income of majority respondents (45%) ranges from Rs5000-Rs10000. The researcher found out that forced sex working was only 3% here in the present study they get into the sex work profession because of sudden financial for looking after family and raring the children, providing better education and safe future. The lack of sufficient education is one of the major factors for not getting other better paid jobs and opted to take up the sex trade.

 

The researcher found out that majority 86% of respondents have not disclosed about the profession to their family members, to hide the identity of being a sex worker 45% of sex worker change the location from one place to another for safer environment, to easily switch on or perform the role of sex worker without any fear and to earn more money by changing the place. 86% of the sex workers not able to share their problems related to sex profession with their family members for whom she entered the profession because of the stigma attached to it and have fear of breaking bonds in family as a result they are not able to disclose any issues problems related to sex profession with the family members.. The majority 40%of respondents are comfortable disclosing their profession only to the NGO staffs and their peer groups in the organization. Being a sex worker 88.8% of them have multi issues which bother their normal life the major issues which bother them more are family awareness about her sex profession. The further issues are fear of being arrested by the police, getting STD or HIV infection or fear of getting pregnant. These issues in later stages lead to psychological problems. The researcher found that 25% of respondents lost interest in activities and life in general, as the feeling bothers her that she hides the truth from the family members. 50% of the respondents responded that when they are at home they avoid thoughts or feelings of as sex worker and 20% have guilt feeling detaches them from others and making them emotionally numb. 25% of respondents experience difficulty in concentration while managing the dual role to handle the needs of family.25% of respondents experience hyper vigilance –red alert, always vigilant for hiding about her sex profession from the family members.16.6% respondents experience difficulty in sleeping and 20% experiences irritability or outbursts of anger. 73% respondents experience the mood swings occasionally. 75%of respondents experiences feeling of depersonalisation occasionally. 70% of respondents experiences anxiety occasionally and 30% of respondents experiences anxiety frequently. 73% respondents experienced Obsessions and compulsions. 78% of respondent’s experiences the Feeling of ashamed and Guilty occasionally. The major finding is that majority of sex workers shows the symptoms of the psychological problems which has to be taken into consideration; here the data shows that they have the symptoms of suicidal tendencies and dissociation. If these symptoms were not looked after properly in future they may have chances of having post traumatic disorder.

 

The researcher found that though the majority 41% sex worker not satisfied with profession but still majority of sex workers (58%) feel that sex workers play a very important role in society. They also feel that if sex work was completely stopped, society would be a more dangerous place, especially for women. (61%) feel that societies attitude towards sex workers is very bad. Majority of sex workers (45%) feel that the police are not concerned about their safety or welfare. The police are not seen as a source of security for the sex workers who instead rely on other sex workers for security. A majority of sex workers (66.6%) feel that police attitude towards sex workers is also very bad because the cultural and social stigma persists in society for the sex worker and lack of information about the human rights. But it interesting to note that a significant percentage also feel that police attitude towards them is fair (31.7%). This could indicate the possibility of a growing change in how sex workers to be perceived by society. Majority of sex workers (40%) feel that legalizing sex work will not make a difference to their lives. But a significant portion (38%) feels that it would somewhat improve their lives. The researcher found that for majority (83%) of sex workers their families and marriages institution is very important. For many of the respondents, the main reason for being in the sex work profession was to support their families. The majority of sex workers families (85%) do not know about their profession. 86.5 % of respondents manage by performing dual roles, as of sex worker and as of house wife without informing her profession to family and society by hiding the truth by lies and by projecting herself as having a respectable job within and outside the district or by pretending to visit the friends. The rest of 13.3% of respondents manage dual role by informing the family members about the profession.

 

The researcher found that majority (85%) children of the sex workers are not aware of their profession. This is because of the fear of losing the affection and support of their children due to the stigma associated with the sex work profession. The majority of sex workers (45%) are hopeful towards the future of their children and believe that their children will have a bright future ahead .The majority of sex workers (73%) would discourage their children becoming sex workers. This clearly indicates that the respondents do not think that sex work is an ideal profession for their children and they want a better future for their children. The majority of respondents have no clear plan for leaving the sex trade in the near future. This could be due to multiple reasons like – lack of alternative income generating skills, their existing financial situation etc. The majority of respondents (40%) intend to start their own business after retirement from sex work. 35% preferred to work in shops after retirement from sex work profession and13.3% of respondents wants to stay with children after retirement from sex work profession. The findings shows that 75%of respondents expecting both the continuous skill based training and support from the organization which is the place of common platform for sex worker where they can ventilate with their peer group and other staffs and can think for better future.

 

Conclusion

 

Sex work though an oldest profession but then and now the stigma related to this profession persists. With all stigma and other related issues sex workers are part of society and society can no longer turn a blind eye towards sex work and imagine that it does not exist. If sex work was completely stopped, society would be a more dangerous place, especially for women. Sex workers are human beings too and have the same human rights as any other human being. Recognizing this fact is the first step in order to prevent injustice towards them. Any society, in order to develop or progress, must treat all its members with equality and justice.

 


Impact of family violence on children

 

Name and address of the principal investigator:

 

Dr. Sr. Sunirose I.P

Asst professor

Dept of Social Work, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104

Kerala, India

 

 

Name and address of the institution:

 

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

(Affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam)

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104

Kerala, India

 

UGC approval letter no. and date:

 

MRP (H)-1749/11-12/KLMG054/UGC-SWRO dated 13th July 2012

 

Summary of the report:

 

The current study focused on the impact of family violence on children. All the children were staying in the institutions registered under Juvenile Justice Act 2000, under the categories of children in need of care and protection. Hundred children were included with equal number of boys and girls. The mean age was 14. 17 years with a standard deviation of 2.53. Many (88 percent) children belonged to Hindu religion. The children were not basically aware about the income of their mothers however 78 percent shared they do not have enough money for the basic needs. Barring 2 percent all the children love to live with their mothers, though the present circumstance may not allow. All the children love to eat together with their mother and siblings and commended this as the most favorite activity in their life.

 

 

Family violence the children are exposed to in their homes

 

 

  1. Many children had the medium level (95 percent) of exposure to violence between their parents and a five percent of them had experienced high level of violence at home. All the children reported generally their parents argued a great deal about them and the mothers were physically abused by their fathers during the conflicts. There was a difference between the boys and girls with their level of experience. All the boys and 95 percent of girls had the medium level and a 5 percent of girls had the high level of violence disclosure between their parents. (Chi-Square=5.263, df =1, p= .022). The hypothesis stated that larger number of girls will have higher level of exposure to family violence than the boys was accepted. Many of them saw the outcome and were in the same room while the fight took place at home. All most all children witnessed chocking (99 percent) their mothers a lot and pulling her hair (73 percent) and feel bitter about it. Thus they were inevitable part of the incidence of conflicts between their parents.

     

    The extent in which the children intervened during family violence 
  2. The children in this study also reported deep involvement in violent events at home. Majority had a medium (63 percent) and 36 percent low level of concern with the fight at home. All of them tried to physically stop the fights a lot (99 percent) and even called for help sometimes (44 percent). Majority (54 percent) of the children sometimes yelled something to their mother and father from a different room and 46 percent did so a lot of the time. While in the same room, 61 percent of the children reported they hollered to intervene a lot and 39 percent said they did so sometimes while in the same room where fighting was occurring. Many children reported (40 percent) that the father did something to hurt them and scare their mothers and them sometimes and for 27 percent of children a lot of times. The participants also shared about their fathers asking them to tell on their mothers a lot (97 percent). None of the children tried to get away from the fighting anytime. However many of the girls (89.8 percent) had the medium level of involvement and 62 percent of the boys had low level of response, generally the girls are more concern about the violence inflicted on their mothers (Chi-Square=28.691 df =1, p= .000). The hypothesis stated that the girl children will intervene more during family violence than boy children was accepted. Major Risk factors the children experience
  3. All the children (100 percent) were worried about their mother's partner's drinking or drug use and a 6 percent concerned a lot about their mothers drinking. All the children were anxious about their mother sadness a lot excluding 1 percent. The participants had big change in their life a lot (55 percent) and for 45 percent sometimes. Moving from one home to another and staying along with mothers in the hospital after the fights also were risk for the children. Victimization of children in the family
  4. The children were asked whether the adult in their family hurt them. All the children said that the adult in their family physically hurt them sometimes (100 percent) to tell very specifically the children experienced hitting them sometimes (93 percent) and 7 percent a lot. They also reported making fun of them (99 percent) calling them names (99 percent) and saying things that make them feel bad about (100) sometimes.
  5. This could be an indication that the children are hit by their parents. But at times this was a form of ventilation for the person who was hitting. Some of the children in their casual talk with the researchers reported the beating often happen after the conflict took place. Even at times the participants were not aware about the reason for the hitting. The dependency and the vulnerability of the children make them the soft and the available target for the anger and the frustrations of the parents. Researchers state that children who witness family violence and are physically abused are at higher risk for emotional and psychological maladjustment than children who witness violence and are not abused (Rosewater et al, 2007, Edleson, 2004).
  6. Barring a 12 percent all the children have experienced some sort of sexual abuse even from the outsiders. They even reported the incidence of forced sex with the outsiders sometimes (37 percent) and a lot for 51 percent. Comparatively the girls (68 percent) were forced to have sex a lot and even for 26 percent sometimes with outsiders. (Chi-Square=76.499, df =2, p= .000). Thus the hypothesis stated that larger numbers of girls were forced to sexual abuse than the boys both by the family members and outsiders were accepted.
  7. The participants shared the involvement of their family members in the sexual abuse of children. Large number of children experienced the sexual molestation like made them touch someone’s private parts for sometimes for 34 percent and a lot for 66 percent children. They also reported that their own family members have touched children’s private parts sometimes (77 percent) and 21 percent a lot.
  8. All the girls were forced to touch the private parts of some one from their family a lot (100 percent) but the cases of boys were a different picture, 68 percent for them sometimes and 32 percent a lot. The difference were statistically proved Chi-Square= 51. 515, df =, p= .000. The hypothesis stated that victimization of girls will be more than the boys in the family where violence takes place were accepted.
  9. Community violence and exposure children
  10. The children’s exposure to the community violence was assessed. The children were involved with the emotional/ verbal abuse. All the children reported that they experienced hurt with others and they also have hurt other people’s feelings. With the physical abuse on purpose many said they have never done (45 percent) however 55 percent have done for sometimes in their lives. All have shared that they have witnessed violence in all the movies they have watched so far and on television seeing someone being hurt (99 percent). Almost all (98 percent) were physically hurt by someone sometimes.
  11. Children were generally exposed to slaps for sometimes (98 percent) and a lot (2 percent). Other forms of violent behaviour the respondents were not seen in the community where they were residing with their parents.
  12. Media has influenced the life of each and everybody. Truly it directs all the activities of the human beings. Life begins and ends with the touch of media in the current scenario. The painless accessibility of variety of media has further aggravated the situation even for children. The attitude of violence is promoted through the programmes of media. Peacemaking and the resilience is out fashioned for children. They want to imitate and be like the heroes of the movies. It is high time to check the values endorse through the media.
  13. Outcomes of the research
  14. Developed an area of intervention for the social work practicum for the student social workers, specializing in Family and Child Welfare.
  15. Organized sensitization programme for teachers and children about child abuse in Ernakulam district and provided therapeutic intervention to the children who were the victims of child abuse.
  16. Conducted a study on ‘preventing child abuse through child abuse awareness programmes in schools: an intervention study’.
  17. Conducted a study on the personality types of children who are the victims of child abuse.
  18. Negotiated with Kudubhasree Mission for the social work practicum of the students on the following:
  • To raise the awareness of impact of family violence on children.
  • Identification, monitoring and reporting on the prevalence of family violence in order to shed light on this hidden issue give intervention at early stage.
  • Based on the research a paper titled, ‘Domestic Violence as a Public Health Concern: Youth Perspectives’ have been presented by the researcher in Dyuti 2013, International Conference on Global Public health and Social Work, 3-5 January 2013

Reframing Social Work Interventions for Families with Adolescents: Utilising Strengths Model

 

Name and address of the principal investigator:

 

Nycil Romis

Thomas Asst professor

Dept of Social Work,

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104

Kerala, India

 

Name and address of the institution:

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

(Affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam)

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104

Kerala, India

 

UGC approval letter no. and date:

 

MRP (H)-1750/11-12/KLMG054/UGC-SWRO dated 13th July 2012 Summary of the report:

 

The study was conducted to assess the family strengths as well as the relationship among the family strengths and between family strengths and indicators of adolescent well being. Ninety three adolescents and their both parents participated in the study. The adolescent respondents of the families belong to the early adolescent stage, of the age group 12-15, with a mean age of 13.58. The mean age of parents was 42, median education level of the parents was the secondary level and the mean duration of marriage was 16.6 years. More than half (52.7%) of the families were having monthly income in the range of Rs. 5000-10000.

 

Levels of Family strengths in the families: The mean score of the parent adolescent relationship was 24.9 indicating a high level of parent adolescent relationship in the families. 63.4 % of the adolescents were having high relationship with their both parents and 33.3 % were having moderate level of relationship with their parents. The family activities were analysed in eight areas namely, shopping together, indoor and outdoor games, joint cooking, cleaning, making/repairing together, praying and meals together. The mean value of the family activities among the respondent families was 3.04 on a five point scale with standard deviation 0.64, which indicates a high level of family activities. 50.5 % of the adolescents reported of having high level of family activities while 35.5 % said that they have moderate level of family activities involving parents and the adolescents.

 

Adolescent participation in the family was analysed using the indices of Hart’s ladder of participation (1992), in nine areas namely, discussions on family budget and expenditure, major family shopping, family rules, family food choices and food preparation, cleaning, making or repairing something, family celebrations, use of leisure time and recreational activities and outings/holiday programmes outside the house. The mean score of the adolescent participation was 3.38 on a seven point scale with standard deviation 1.33, indicating a moderately low level of adolescent participation at home. About 34.4 % of the adolescents had low participation in family matters which denote participation in family matters without being informed of family decisions. Nearly 33.3 % had moderately low level of participation which includes being informed of the decisions made by parents followed by participation in family matters. About 22.6 % of the adolescents had a moderately high level of participation where the adolescent opinion is sought and considered. Nearly 10 % of the adolescents had a high level of participation at home.

 

The mean score of parental marital satisfaction was 39.7 with a standard deviation of 5.29. This indicated a high level of marital satisfaction. Nearly 44.1 % of the parents had a very high level of marital satisfaction, 24.7 % had high level and 21.5 % had moderate level of marital satisfaction.

 

The mean score for authoritative parenting style among parents was 3.98 with standard deviation 0.64. More than half (52.7 %) of the parents had very high level of authoritative parenting style, 31.2 % had high level and 5.4 % had moderate level of authoritative parenting style.

 

Among the demographic factors, gender and age of the adolescent; and age of the parents were found to have weak but significant relationship with family activities and parent adolescent relationship.

 

Indicators of adolescent well being: The researcher analysed two indicators of adolescent well being in this study namely, life satisfaction and positive behaviours of adolescents. The mean score of life satisfaction of adolescents was 196.3, indicating a high level of life satisfaction. Almost half of the adolescents had a high level of life satisfaction while 47.3 % of the adolescents had a very high level of life satisfaction. Female adolescents had a significantly higher life satisfaction (t(df = 91) = -3.36, p value<.05) than male adolescents. The mean score of positive behaviours among adolescents was 101.4, which indicates a very high level of positive behaviours at home. Majority (62.4 %) of the adolescents was exhibiting positive behaviours at a very high level and 31.2 % were exhibiting a high level of positive behaviours.

 

Relationship among family strengths and measures of adolescent well being: On examining the relationship between family strengths and indicators of adolescent well being, adolescent life satisfaction showed a highly significant positive relationship with parent adolescent relationship (r = .507, p value<.01), adolescent participation (r = .300, p value<.01) authoritative parenting style (r = .311, p value<.01) and marital satisfaction of parents (r = .253, p value< .05). The positive behavior of adolescents also showed a highly significant positive correlation with authoritative parenting style (r = .355, p value<.01), especially that of mother at .01 level. The hypotheses stating significant relationship of adolescent life satisfaction with parent adolescent relationship, authoritative parenting style, adolescent participation and marital satisfaction were accepted. The hypothesis stating significant relationship between family activities and adolescent life satisfaction was rejected.

 

Based on the inter relationships among family strengths and indicators of adolescent well being the researcher regressed four family strengths for predicting adolescent life satisfaction. The results of the stepwise analysis revealed that out of the four factors adolescent parent relationship and authoritative parenting style were significant predictors of adolescent life satisfaction (F= 13.5, p< .01). Overall, the model explained 32% of the variance in adolescent life satisfaction (R =.562, R2 = .315, p<.01).

 

Outcomes of the research

 

Based on the research, two papers titled, “Family and Community Collaborations for Positive Adolescent Development: A Strength Based Approach” and “A Sociological Analysis of Parenting Challenges and the way Ahead” have been presented by the researcher in two international conferences in 2014. Two articles have been accepted for publication in the Rajagiri Journal of Social Development and the Indian Journal of Family Studies.

 


Name and address of the principal investigator:

 

Kiran Thampi

Asst professor

Dept of Social Work,

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104,

Kerala, India

 

Name and address of the institution:

 

Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,

(Affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam)

Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,

Pin-683104,

Kerala, India

 

UGC approval letter no. and date:

 

MRP(H)-1751/11-12/KLMG054/UGC-SWRO 13th July 2012 Summary of the report:

 

The organizational practices are unique for any organization which distinguishes them from others. Some of them are to be considered as the best practices which always contribute to the effectiveness of the Organization. NGOs in the voluntary sector are considered as a major social capital in the community which works hand in hand with the Government system to ensure effectiveness in service delivery in social welfare. It is imperative that it should work with utmost efficiency and should be effective considering the scarcity of resources when compared with the commercial organizations.

 

The study attempts to understand the organizational practices of NGOs in different aspects such as financial resource management, human resource management, service delivery, organizational professionalism, strategic management and beneficiary consideration which will enhance their quality of performance. Indicators of quality of organizational performance are very rare (Zadek and Gatward, 1995) and the general lack of satisfactory evaluative mechanisms is a serious drawback when it comes to performance appraisal of NGOs. The current study tries to have a set of criteria with which majority of the organizational practices can be identified and suggest a framework for performance appraisal which will be helpful for NGOs. NGOs will be effective only if they identify, analyze and resolve the issues in management. The universe of the study consists of the Director/managers and employees in the NGOs working in development sector in Ernakulam. The tools of collection of data in this study are derived from Indicators of performance appraisal from Arti Nanavati (2002) , good management indicators manual developed by the International NGO Training & Research Centre (INTRAC)- U.K which is called as ‘Management Assessment Tools’(MAT), and Indicators to assess management issues from Alan Fowler’s Capacity approach .The direct beneficiaries of the research will be the NGOs -the managers and employees .The indirect beneficiaries will be the support organizations, CBOs and government to understand the functions of NGOs. The other beneficiaries include professionals, academicians and consultants in the associated fields. The research design is descriptive in nature. From the study it is very evident that the financial management practices should have the following criteria like participatory nature of planning and budgeting involving the employees, presence of standardized accounting system of all the transactions, financial monitoring by the governing structures, legal adherence (FCRA,IT act etc),regularity in auditing process, presence of employee welfare schemes, flexibility in financial policies of the organization(loan repayment ,remuneration etc),support and flexibility from the governing structures regarding financial matters, staff involvement in fund raising, presence of innovative fund raising programmes, funding networking with Govt and regularity of fund flow. In the current study, 21(17.5%) of the respondents are not at all satisfied with the size of the staff in relation to the range of activities of the organization. 89(74.2%) of the respondents, which is the majority in this study, opined that they are very clear about their roles in the organization. 41(34.2%) of the respondents only, ie, roughly 10 NGOs opined that they are satisfied with the recruitment policy and the guidelines in the agency. 57(47.5%) of the respondents only are satisfied in the development of second line of managers in their agencies. Accordingly good practices in the area of human resource management can be appropriate size of staff in relation to the range of activities, ratio of full time staff to the volunteers, presence of innovative practices to enhance leadership capacity among staff, development of second line of managers in the organization, having a good recruitment policy and guidelines, role clarity of the different staff in your organization, satisfaction regarding incentives / allowances / rewards etc for the employees, salary increment and job promotion of the staff. Analyzing the current study, 95(79.2%) of the respondents are satisfied to a very large extent regarding the linkages with the government and donor agencies which is a very good practice of NGOs. Apart from 50(41.7%) of the respondents who are satisfied regarding the beneficiary involvement in evaluation process only, more than half of the respondents found the beneficiary involvement in planning and implementation phase as satisfactory. The presentation of accounts to the beneficiaries, presence of capacity building programmes, information communication activities of the organization which reaches and involves the beneficiaries and taking feedback from the beneficiaries were not found to be satisfactory from the part of majority of NGOs. Accordingly, the area of service delivery can be better appraised based on the indicators like the beneficiary involvement/participation in the planning-implementation-evaluation process, capacity building programmes for beneficiaries, presence of proper information communication activities of the organization to reach the stakeholders, have a good feedback mechanism from the beneficiaries, presence of consistent feedback mechanism from the beneficiaries, conduct of general body meetings which the beneficiaries are involved, presentation of accounts to the beneficiaries, regular dialogue and linkages with the government and donor agencies, and the attempts made to do networking among other NGOs. From the study, the organizational professionalism should have the measurement indicators like internal communication pattern in the organization, flow of formal communication chain ,timely accurate and relevant flow of information, analysis of data pertaining organization each year(data consolidation and interpretation in the form of survey/research), publications of the organization/employees other than annual reports, presentation about the organization/activities in seminars/conferences, presence of regular evaluation with all the staff members, interlinkage between vision, mission & programmes, use of IT (Information technology) in service delivery, regular updating and maintenance of organization website, shared ownership of outcomes in the organization (with the staff members and management), reflection & learning of each activity is ensured, presence of a balanced tool to measure achievement , presence of common documentation format ,effective reporting mechanism of the staff and general organizational climate. In the current study, majority of the respondents ie, 66(55%) are satisfied to a large extent regarding the relation between vision, mission and the activities of their NGOs. 49 (40.8%) of the respondents ie,12 NGOs in the study are satisfied to a very large extent regarding the use of IT. 48(40%) of the respondents are satisfied about the timely strategic planning of the NGO with the involvement of its staff members.. 48(40%) of the respondents are satisfied to a large extent regarding the activities of the NGOs to minimize Government support. 63(52.5%) of the respondents are satisfied to a large extent about the initiatives taken by their NGOs for fundraising. 80(66.7%) which is the majority opined that they are satisfied to a large extent about the maintenance of public relations. 22 NGOs take efforts to redefine goals and activities as per the demands of the target constituency. 88(73.3%) of the respondents claimed that they are satisfied to a large extent regarding the efforts taken by their organization. 109(90.8%) NGOs ie, 27 NGOs responded that they are having brochure as a key marketing tool of their activities as well as for the fundraising activities. 75(62.5%) of the respondents ie 19 of the NGOs rely on the donations from the public and most of them use the fund raising campaigns as a publicity for their NGO. 28 of the NGOs ie, 114(95%) of the respondents opined that they organize regular events as a part of their different activities as well as annual functions. Celebrity involvement in the activities of NGOs as a strategy of marketing is deliberately used by half of the NGOs . 65(54.2%) of the organizations ie 16 of the NGOs, organize workshops in tie up with other organizations including social work education institutions in their respective areas. 72(60%) of the response ie, 18 NGOs, ascertain that conducting exhibitions on related issues (permanent or temporary) or interactive sessions with the public as a regular marketing strategy is followed. 21 respondents (out of 42) and 24 respondents (out of 41) from NGOs in social service and development sectors respectively expressed their dissatisfaction regarding the organizational professionalism. 36(60%) of the respondents with social work education are unsatisfied regarding the organization professionalism in their NGOs which comes to 9 NGOs. The sound strategic management, service delivery and external relations positively contribute towards professionalism of the organization. Cross tabulation between the type of NGOs and the salary increment and job promotion of the staff members shows that 35 out of 41 respondents are satisfied only to some extent regarding the salary increment and job promotion of the staff members as far as Development NGOs are concerned.