Name and address of the principal investigator:
Dept of Social Work,
Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,
Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,
Name and address of the institution:
Rajagiri College of Social Sciences,
(Affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam)
Rajagiri P O, Kalamassery,
The organizational practices are unique for any organization which distinguishes them from others. Some of them are to be considered as the best practices which always contribute to the effectiveness of the Organization. NGOs in the voluntary sector are considered as a major social capital in the community which works hand in hand with the Government system to ensure effectiveness in service delivery in social welfare. It is imperative that it should work with utmost efficiency and should be effective considering the scarcity of resources when compared with the commercial organizations.
The study attempts to understand the organizational practices of NGOs in different aspects such as financial resource management, human resource management, service delivery, organizational professionalism, strategic management and beneficiary consideration which will enhance their quality of performance. Indicators of quality of organizational performance are very rare (Zadek and Gatward, 1995) and the general lack of satisfactory evaluative mechanisms is a serious drawback when it comes to performance appraisal of NGOs. The current study tries to have a set of criteria with which majority of the organizational practices can be identified and suggest a framework for performance appraisal which will be helpful for NGOs. NGOs will be effective only if they identify, analyze and resolve the issues in management. The universe of the study consists of the Director/managers and employees in the NGOs working in development sector in Ernakulam. The tools of collection of data in this study are derived from Indicators of performance appraisal from Arti Nanavati (2002) , good management indicators manual developed by the International NGO Training & Research Centre (INTRAC)- U.K which is called as ‘Management Assessment Tools’(MAT), and Indicators to assess management issues from Alan Fowler’s Capacity approach .The direct beneficiaries of the research will be the NGOs -the managers and employees .The indirect beneficiaries will be the support organizations, CBOs and government to understand the functions of NGOs. The other beneficiaries include professionals, academicians and consultants in the associated fields. The research design is descriptive in nature. From the study it is very evident that the financial management practices should have the following criteria like participatory nature of planning and budgeting involving the employees, presence of standardized accounting system of all the transactions, financial monitoring by the governing structures, legal adherence (FCRA,IT act etc),regularity in auditing process, presence of employee welfare schemes, flexibility in financial policies of the organization(loan repayment ,remuneration etc),support and flexibility from the governing structures regarding financial matters, staff involvement in fund raising, presence of innovative fund raising programmes, funding networking with Govt and regularity of fund flow. In the current study, 21(17.5%) of the respondents are not at all satisfied with the size of the staff in relation to the range of activities of the organization. 89(74.2%) of the respondents, which is the majority in this study, opined that they are very clear about their roles in the organization. 41(34.2%) of the respondents only, ie, roughly 10 NGOs opined that they are satisfied with the recruitment policy and the guidelines in the agency. 57(47.5%) of the respondents only are satisfied in the development of second line of managers in their agencies. Accordingly good practices in the area of human resource management can be appropriate size of staff in relation to the range of activities, ratio of full time staff to the volunteers, presence of innovative practices to enhance leadership capacity among staff, development of second line of managers in the organization, having a good recruitment policy and guidelines, role clarity of the different staff in your organization, satisfaction regarding incentives / allowances / rewards etc for the employees, salary increment and job promotion of the staff. Analyzing the current study, 95(79.2%) of the respondents are satisfied to a very large extent regarding the linkages with the government and donor agencies which is a very good practice of NGOs. Apart from 50(41.7%) of the respondents who are satisfied regarding the beneficiary involvement in evaluation process only, more than half of the respondents found the beneficiary involvement in planning and implementation phase as satisfactory. The presentation of accounts to the beneficiaries, presence of capacity building programmes, information communication activities of the organization which reaches and involves the beneficiaries and taking feedback from the beneficiaries were not found to be satisfactory from the part of majority of NGOs. Accordingly, the area of service delivery can be better appraised based on the indicators like the beneficiary involvement/participation in the planning-implementation-evaluation process, capacity building programmes for beneficiaries, presence of proper information communication activities of the organization to reach the stakeholders, have a good feedback mechanism from the beneficiaries, presence of consistent feedback mechanism from the beneficiaries, conduct of general body meetings which the beneficiaries are involved, presentation of accounts to the beneficiaries, regular dialogue and linkages with the government and donor agencies, and the attempts made to do networking among other NGOs. From the study, the organizational professionalism should have the measurement indicators like internal communication pattern in the organization, flow of formal communication chain ,timely accurate and relevant flow of information, analysis of data pertaining organization each year(data consolidation and interpretation in the form of survey/research), publications of the organization/employees other than annual reports, presentation about the organization/activities in seminars/conferences, presence of regular evaluation with all the staff members, interlinkage between vision, mission & programmes, use of IT (Information technology) in service delivery, regular updating and maintenance of organization website, shared ownership of outcomes in the organization (with the staff members and management), reflection & learning of each activity is ensured, presence of a balanced tool to measure achievement , presence of common documentation format ,effective reporting mechanism of the staff and general organizational climate. In the current study, majority of the respondents ie, 66(55%) are satisfied to a large extent regarding the relation between vision, mission and the activities of their NGOs. 49 (40.8%) of the respondents ie,12 NGOs in the study are satisfied to a very large extent regarding the use of IT. 48(40%) of the respondents are satisfied about the timely strategic planning of the NGO with the involvement of its staff members.. 48(40%) of the respondents are satisfied to a large extent regarding the activities of the NGOs to minimize Government support. 63(52.5%) of the respondents are satisfied to a large extent about the initiatives taken by their NGOs for fundraising. 80(66.7%) which is the majority opined that they are satisfied to a large extent about the maintenance of public relations. 22 NGOs take efforts to redefine goals and activities as per the demands of the target constituency. 88(73.3%) of the respondents claimed that they are satisfied to a large extent regarding the efforts taken by their organization. 109(90.8%) NGOs ie, 27 NGOs responded that they are having brochure as a key marketing tool of their activities as well as for the fundraising activities. 75(62.5%) of the respondents ie 19 of the NGOs rely on the donations from the public and most of them use the fund raising campaigns as a publicity for their NGO. 28 of the NGOs ie, 114(95%) of the respondents opined that they organize regular events as a part of their different activities as well as annual functions. Celebrity involvement in the activities of NGOs as a strategy of marketing is deliberately used by half of the NGOs . 65(54.2%) of the organizations ie 16 of the NGOs, organize workshops in tie up with other organizations including social work education institutions in their respective areas. 72(60%) of the response ie, 18 NGOs, ascertain that conducting exhibitions on related issues (permanent or temporary) or interactive sessions with the public as a regular marketing strategy is followed. 21 respondents (out of 42) and 24 respondents (out of 41) from NGOs in social service and development sectors respectively expressed their dissatisfaction regarding the organizational professionalism. 36(60%) of the respondents with social work education are unsatisfied regarding the organization professionalism in their NGOs which comes to 9 NGOs. The sound strategic management, service delivery and external relations positively contribute towards professionalism of the organization. Cross tabulation between the type of NGOs and the salary increment and job promotion of the staff members shows that 35 out of 41 respondents are satisfied only to some extent regarding the salary increment and job promotion of the staff members as far as Development NGOs are concerned.